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Antibodies from IMGENEX: Apoptosis
 



Cell death is a fundamental aspect of the life cycle of the eukaryotic cell. Homeostasis implies a balance between cell proliferation and cell death, and this balance is essential for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Dysregulation of either cell death or proliferation leads to a wide range of pathologies including cancer, neurodegenerative disease, and aberrant embryogenesis. During the 1990’s research in the field of cell death grew exponentially, and fundamental aspects regarding the molecular   nature    and   physiological regulation of the dying process were elucidated. By the end of the decade, t was recognized that cell death occurs through a network of mechanisms. These mechanisms act in series or in parallel, each of which can be variably expressed in different eukaryotic species and within the same species, among distinct cell types. By the early 2000’s assays to analyze cell death had become essential research and diagnostics tools in laboratories worldwide.
 

Apoptosis Concepts and Cell Death Assays
The main goals of the cell death field is to determine the mechanisms and regulation of cell death, whether it occurs in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, singlecelled or multicellular organisms, animals or plants. Traditionally, many cell death assays have been referred to as apoptosis assays. However, apoptosis was originally defined purely on morphological terms in a now classic paper by Kerr et al. in 1972 to designate a morphologically distinct form of cell death associated with normal physiology. Apoptosis was distinguished from necrosis, which is associated with acute injury to cells. Apoptosis is characterized by nuclear chromatin condensation, cell shrinking, dilated endo-plasmic reticulum, and membrane blebbing.

As the cell death field matured, focus shifted away from describing the morphological aspects of cell death to assessing the underlying biology. As a result, today’s assay methodologies are based on detecting specific biological aspects of the cell death process including caspase activation, protein cleavage, mitochondrial functioning, loss of phospholipid membrane asymmetry, and DNA fragmentation.

 

Apoptosis Research Tools

ELISA Assays

Caspase Inhibitors

  Caspase Activity Assays
  Mitochondrial Permeability Assays
  CytoGlo Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Kits
  Serine Protease Activity Assays

Many different models of cell death have emerged including necrosis, apoptosis, anoikis, caspase-independent apoptosis, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, Wallerian degeneration, excitotoxicity, erythropoiesis, platelets, cornification and lens (reviewed in Melino et al. 2005). However, apoptosis continues to be a popular, although loosely defined term that is used differently by different investigators to measure and describe cell death. In general, anything that looks like apoptosis has been called apoptosis which has contributed to the complexity of the cell death literature (Vaux et al. 1999). Researchers should keep in mind that cell death assays detect a biological aspect or mechanism of cell death versus being exclusive to a particular type of cell death such as apoptosis or necrosis.

IMGENEX offers a wide range of products and assays for detecting and analyzing cell death. Collectively, these products encompass a variety of techniques including flow cytometry, western blot analysis, immunohistochemisty, fluorescence microscopy, and ELISA. As cell death occurs through different mechanisms, which may be present in various combinations, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) encourages investigators studying cell death to use more than one assay whenever possible (Kroemer et al. 2005).

ATF6 and ER Stress: Potential Cancer BioMarker
Emerging Non-Apoptotic Paradigms for Caspases

 
 
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Cat.No Description Format Species Clone Application Publications
IMG-273 ATF6 (Full-length and Active/Cleaved Forms) Purified G, Ha, H, M, Ra, R 70B1413.1 ChIP, IF/ICC, IHC (frozen), IHC (p), IP, WB pricing
IMG-5028 Caspase-1 Purified H, M 14F468 IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-144A Caspase-3 (Pro and Active) Purified H, M, R 31A1067 IHC (frozen), IHC (p), Immuno-EM, WB pricing
IMG-349A Noxa Purified H, M 114C307.1 IF/ICC, IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-246 p73 Purified H, M 5B429 ChIP, IF/ICC, IHC (frozen), IHC (p), IP, WB pricing
IMG-259A p73 (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta Isoforms) Purified H, M 5B1288 ChIP, IF/ICC, IP, WB pricing
IMG-6795A 14-3-3 Purified H, Mq, RH N/A WB pricing
IMG-6796A 14-3-3 Purified Ca, Ch, Cha, D, H, Mq, M, O, Or, P, Pi, P, R, RH N/A WB pricing
IMG-3951 14-3-3 sigma/Stratifin Purified, Peptide Affinity H N/A Peptide ELISA, WB pricing
IMG-5657 A1 Sera Ge, M, R N/A IHC (frozen), IHC (p), IP, WB pricing
IMG-5545-1 ACE2 (NT) Purified, Peptide Affinity H N/A IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-5545-2 ACE2 (NT) Purified, Peptide Affinity H N/A IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-4051 Acinus Purified H, M N/A WB pricing
IMG-4052 Acinus Purified H, M N/A WB pricing
IMG-5546-1 Acinus (CP) Purified, Peptide Affinity H N/A IF/ICC, WB pricing
IMG-5546-2 Acinus (CP) Purified, Peptide Affinity H N/A IF/ICC, WB pricing
IMG-5547-1 Acinus (CT) Purified, Peptide Affinity H N/A IF/ICC, WB pricing
IMG-5547-2 Acinus (CT) Purified, Peptide Affinity H N/A IF/ICC, WB pricing
IMG-4043 ACT Purified H N/A WB pricing
ABX-106A-20UG ACTH Purified Br, H AH26 IHC (frozen), IHC (p), WB pricing
ABX-106A-0.1MG ACTH Purified Br, H AH26 IHC (frozen), IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-5635-1 ADAM10 (CT) Purified H N/A IF/ICC, WB pricing
IMG-5635-2 ADAM10 (CT) Purified H N/A IF/ICC, WB pricing
IMG-4097 ADNP Purified H N/A WB pricing
IMG-5408-1 AES (CT) Purified, Peptide Affinity H, M, R N/A IF/ICC pricing
IMG-5408-2 AES (CT) Purified, Peptide Affinity H, M, R N/A IF/ICC pricing
IMG-5409-1 AES (NT) Purified, Peptide Affinity H, M N/A WB pricing
IMG-5409-2 AES (NT) Purified, Peptide Affinity H, M N/A WB pricing
IMG-90483-2 AFX (Ab-197) Purified, Peptide Affinity H, M, R N/A IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-90235-1 AFX (Ser197) Purified, Peptide Affinity H, M, R N/A IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-5658 AIF Sera C, D, H, M, R N/A IHC (frozen), IHC (p), IP, WB pricing
IMG-303-1 AIF (IN) Purified H, M, R N/A IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-303-2 AIF (IN) Purified H, M, R N/A IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-30020 AIF1/IBA1 (isoform 3) Purified, Peptide Affinity H N/A WB pricing
IMG-5411-1 AKT1 Purified, Peptide Affinity H, M, R N/A IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-5411-2 AKT1 Purified, Peptide Affinity H, M, R N/A IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-5487-1 ALS2CR2/ILPIP (IN) Purified, Peptide Affinity H, M, R N/A WB pricing
IMG-5487-2 ALS2CR2/ILPIP (IN) Purified, Peptide Affinity H, M, R N/A WB pricing
IMG-6139A Ambra1 Purified Ch, C, H, M, R N/A IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-3169 Annexin A10/Annexin 14 Purified, Peptide Affinity H, M N/A IHC (p), Peptide ELISA pricing
IMG-5659 Apaf 1 Sera H N/A IHC (frozen), IHC (p), IP, WB pricing
IMG-5660 Apaf 1 Sera H N/A IHC (frozen), IHC (p), IP, WB pricing
IMG-5661 Apaf 1 Sera Ge, H, M, R N/A IHC (frozen), IHC (p), IP, WB pricing
IMG-80469 Apaf 1 Purified H, M, R N/A IHC (p) pricing
IMG-5549-1 Apaf 1 (CT) Purified, Peptide Affinity H, M, R N/A IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-5549-2 Apaf 1 (CT) Purified, Peptide Affinity H, M, R N/A IHC (p), WB pricing
IMG-119-1 Apaf 1 (NT) Purified H, M, R N/A WB pricing
IMG-119-2 Apaf 1 (NT) Purified H, M, R N/A WB pricing
IMX-6147 APG10L Sera Chp, H N/A Peptide ELISA pricing
IMG-6174A APG10L Purified H, M, R N/A IHC (p), WB pricing
 

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