Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) was initially discovered as a homolog of the apolipoprotein B RNA-editing cytidine deaminase 1 (APOBEC1) that showed cytidine deaminase properties in stimulated B cell lines. It is necessary for somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination in B cells, but inappropriate or dysregulated expression AID is often found in tumors and B cell neoplasms. Although it is structurally and functionally similar to the APOBEC proteins, it appears unlikely that AID deaminates dC to dU residues in HIV cDNA as does APOBEC3G.
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