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Product : Antibody >> Apoptosis , Chromatin , DNA Fragmentation , DNA Methylation & Rep.. >> AIF
      
 

Polyclonal Antibody to AIF

 
Cat. No.DescriptionFormatUnitPrice(USD)QuantityBulk Quotation
IMG-5658
AIFSera
0.05 mL
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Catalog No: IMG-5658
Imgenex is now a part of Novus Biologicals! All orders, billing and shipments will be received from Novus. Please contact Novus directly for any questions – novus@novusbio.com. To insure proper processing of you order, please insure that your purchase orders show Novus Biologicals as the vendor.
Contents: 50 ul neat serum containing 0.05% sodium azide. Sodium azide is highly toxic.
Isotype: Rabbit Ig
Clone: N/A
Purification: Neat Serum
Species: Cow, Dog, Human, Mouse, Rat
Host: Rabbit
Application: IHC (frozen): Users should optimize according to model and immunodetection system used (secondary reagents)
IHC (paraffin): 1:1000-1:5000
IP: 1:50-1:200
Western blot analysis: 1:1000-1:2000
Storage: Aliquot and store at -20°C. Avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
Recommended
Positive Control:
spleen, lymphoid, many cancer cell lines
 

Background
AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) was initially discovered as a protein involved in caspase-independent cell death. It is now known that AIF has both vital and lethal functions (reviewed in Modjtahedi et al, 2006). In healthy cells, AIF is a flavoprotein present in the mitochondria where it has vital roles in cellular redox metabolism and mitochondrial bioenergetics.  In many models of apoptosis, AIF is released from the mitochondria during mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization along with other mitochondrial proteins.  Upon release, AIF translocates first to the cytosol and then to the nucleus where it induces chromatin condensation and DNA degradation. Although several lines of evidence suggest that AIF is a main mediator of capsase-independent cell death, the mechanisms regulating AIF pro-apoptotic function remain to be fully elucidatied and may depend on the cell type and type of apoptotic stimuli.   Human AIF is transcribed from a nuclear gene located on the X chromosome and translated in the cytoplasm to a precursor protein of 613 amino acids (aa) which corresponds to ~67 kDa.  The precursor protein is imported into the mitochonria by mitochondrial localization sequences located within the N-terminal prodomain of AIF.  Once inside the mitochondria, the prodomain is cleaved giving rise to a mature AIF form of ~57 kDa.   AIF isoforms generated from a single AIF gene have been identified, including AIF short isoform 2 (324 aa protein; GenBank no. gb|AAY84739.1) and AIF short isoform 3 (237 aa protein; GenBank no. gb|AAY84741.1) (reviewed in Delttre et al, 2006).  The generation of multiple isoforms from a common gene is an evolutionary mechanism that increases protein diversiity in eukaryotes.  Regulating gene expression through the production of multiple isoforms from a single gene is thought to play a major role in the control of apoptosis and other forms of programmed cell death.  IMG-5658 recognizes AIF and AIF isoforms containing the peptide immunogen sequence, RARDPGARVLIVSEDPELP. 

Antigen
A synthetic peptide corresponding to amino acids  151-169 (RARDPGARVLIVSEDPELP) of human AIF was used as immunogen; GenBank no. NP_004199.1.  Human AIF is a 613 amino acid (aa) protein. The immunogen sequence is 100% conserved in human AIF short isoforms 2 and 3. AIF short isoform 2 is a 324 aa protein; GenBank no. gb|AAY84739.1. AIF short isoform 3 is a 237 aa protein; GenBank no. gb|AAY84741.1.

This immunogen sequence is also 100% conserved in rat, mouse, dog and cow AIF.  

 
AIF Antibody

Western blot analysis of AIF in human colon using IMG-5658 at 1:2000. Lane 1, normal colon. Lanes 2-7, colon carcinoma tissue lysates from 6 different patients. mAIF, thought to represent mitochondrial AIF.

AIF Antibody IMG-5658

Immunohistochemical staining of AIF in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded normal human colon using IMG-5658 at 1:2000. Hematoxylin-eosin counterstain. In this example, AIF expression is predominant in the upper part of the crypt.

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Reference
1. N Modjtahedi, F Giordaneeto, F Madeo, and G Kroemer. 2006. Apoptosis-inducing factor: vital and lethal. Trends Cell Biol. 16:264-272.
2. Delettre C, VJ Yuste, RS Moubarak, M Bras, J-C Lesbordes-Brion, S petres, J Bellalou, and SA Susin. 2006. AIFsh, a novel apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) pro-apoptotic isofrm with potential pathological relevance in human cancer. J Biol Chem. 281:6413-6426.


Research purposes only. Not for diagnostic or in vivo use. This product is guaranteed to perform as indicated on the datasheet for one year from the date of purchase.


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