1. TGF-a Regulates TLR Expression and Function on Epidermal Keratinocytes. Miller LS, OE Sørensen, PT Liu, HR Jalian, D Eshtiaghpour, BE Behmanesh, W Chung, TD Starner, J Kim,, PA. Sieling, T Ganz and RL Modlin. J. Immunol, 174: 6137-6143 (2005). (IHC-frozen) Imgenex antibodies cited: 1. TLR5 (IMG-664) [IHC-frozen, Fig 1 (normal human skin and psoriasis, primary human organotypic keratinocyte culture)]. 2. TLR9 (IMG-305A) [IHC-frozen, Fig 1 (normal human skin and psoriasis, primary human organotypic keratinocyte culture)].
2. Human CD4+ T Cells Express TLR5 and Its Ligand Flagellin Enhances the Suppressive Capacity and Expression of FOXP3 in CD4+CD25+ T Regulatory Cells. Crellin NK, RV Garcia, O Hadisfar, SE Allan, TS Steiner, and MK Levings. J. Immunol., 175: 8051-8059 (2005). Imgenex antibodies cited: 1. TLR5-FITC (IMG-663C) [Flow-intracellular, Figs 3B and 3D (primary human CD4+ T cells, primary human CD14+ monocytes, primary human monocyte-derived dendritic cells)]; 2, TLR5 (IMG-664) [WB, Fig 5 (primary human CD4+ T cells)] The specificity of the IMG-664 antibody was confirmed by WB with 293T cells transfected with a TLR5 expression vector, documented in the Materials and Methods section)
3. Intracellular Signaling Mechanisms Regulating Toll-Like Receptor-Mediated Activation of Eosinophils. Wong CK, PFY Cheung, WK IP and CWK Lam. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.doi:10.1165/rcmb.2006-0457OC (2007), in press. Imgenex antibodies cited (human blood eosinophils and neutrophils from buffy coat): For WB, Fig. 1A: TLR1 (IMG-5012), TLR5 (IMG-664), TLR6 (IMG-304A), TLR7 (IMG-540), TLR8 (IMG-321A), TLR9 (IMG-305A). For Flow (Intracellular) and Flow (Surface), Fig. 1B: TLR1 (IMG-5021), TLR2 (IMG-416C), TLR3 (IMG-315C), TLR4 (IMG-417C), TLR5 (IMG-663C), TLR6 (IMG-304C), TLR7 (IMG-665A), TLR8 (IMG-321C), TLR9 (IMG-305C).
4. Stimulation by TLR5 modulates osteoclast differentiation through STAT1/IFN-Β1. Ha H, J Lee, N Kim, H Kwak, H Kim, S Lee, J Rhee, H Kim, Z Hee Lee. J Immunol 180: 1382-1389 (2008). WB (mouse osteoclasts and bone marrow cells), Fig. 1A.
5. Inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis by TLR agonists in whole blood: involvement of the phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Akt and NF-kB signaling pathways, leading to increased levels of Mcl-1, A1, and phosphorylated bad. François S, J El Benna, M Pham . C Dang, E Pedruzzi, M Gougerot-Pocidalo, C Elbim. J. Immunol 174: 3633-3642 (2005). Imgenex antibodies cited [WB (human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN)), Fig. 5]:
1. TLR2 (IMG-319)
2. TLR3 (IMG-315)
3. TLR5 (IMG-664)
6. The myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is required for CD+ T cell effector function in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease. Fukata M, Breglio K, A Chen, A Vamadevan, T Goo, D Hsu, D Conduah, R Xu, M Abreu. J Immunol 180: 1382-1389 (2008). Flow (Cell Surface) + Flow (Intracellular) [mouse splenic CD4+CD45Rbhigh T cells, RAW 264.7 cells], Fig. 1.
Antibodies specific for human or murine Toll-like receptors detect canine leukocytes by flow cytometry. Burgener IA and TW Jungi. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology124:184-191 (2008). Imgenex products cited for canine (dog) PBMC subpopulations:
1. 10083K [IC-Flow (Intracellular Staining Flow Assay) Kit
2. IMG-416A (TLR2), Flow (Cell Surface), Fig 1 and Tables 1 & 2
3. IMG-315A (TLR3), Flow (Intracellular), Tables 1 & 2
4. IMG-417A (TLR4), Flow (Intracellular), Fig 1 and Tables 1 & 2
5. IMG-663A (TLR5), Flow (Cell Surface), Fig 1 and Tables 1 & 2
6. IMG-664A (TLR5), Flow (Cell Surface), Tables 1 & 2
7. IMG-305A (TLR9), Flow (Intracellular), Fig 2 and Tables 1 & 2
8. Toll-like receptors 4 and 5 induce distinct types of vasculitis. Deng J, W Ma-Krupa, A Gewirtz, B Younge, J Goronzy, C Weyand. Circulation Research DOI: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.108.185777 (2009). IMG-664A: IHC (paraffin), human temporal arteries, Fig. 1E,G.
9. Antigen containing liposomes engrafted with flagellin related peptides are effective vaccines that can induce potent antitumor immunity and immunotherapeutic effect. Faham A & Altin J. J Immunol 185: 1744-1754 (2010). IMGENEX product cited: TLR5 Alexa Fluor (IMG-664AF488): Flow (cell surface): HEK-293, HepG2, CHO, and BMDCs (bone marrow derived dendridic cells) cell lines, Fig 3.
Note: Cell surface expression of TLR5 was found to be relativetly strong in HEK-293 and moderate in HepG2 cells. TLR5 was weakly expressed in murine BMDCs and no significant expression was found in CHO cells, consistent with reports that CHO cells do not express TLR5, Fig 3.
Note: The author noted that mAb TLR5 (clone: 19D759.2) produced bettter results in flow cytometry than many of the other commercially available TLR5 antibodies.
Note: mAb TLR5 was transfected validated by flow (cell surface) in CHO cells transfected with mouse TLR5, data described but not shown.
10. Membrane-tethered MUC1 mucin is phosphorylated by epidermal growth factor receptor in airway epithelial cells and associates with TLR5 to inhibit recruitment of MyD88. Kato K, EP Lillehoj, YS Park, T Umehara, NE Hoffman, M Madesh, and KC Kim. J Immunol 188: 2014-2022 (2012). IMGENEX product cited: TLR5 (IMG-664A). WB: Mouse embryonic fibroblasts: Fig 1A. Human embryonic kidney cells, Figs 3A, 3C, 4A, & 4B. Human lung epithelial cells, primary mouse tracheal surface epithelial cells, human tracheal epithelial cells, Fig 5A. Human embryonic kidney cells, Fig 6C-H.